Thursday, September 16, 2010

Prospects of Eco-tourism & Challenges of Waste Management In “Kathmandu Valley Cultural Trekking Trail (KVCTT)”


(A case study of Nagarkot, a popular hill station)

1. Background:
Nepal is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of bio-diversity due to its unique geographical position and latitudinal variation. The elevation of the country ranges from 60m above sea level to the highest point on earth, the Mt.Everest at 8848m.Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, is one of the most densely populated cities. It is one of the biggest tourist destinations in the country. Inside and around the city, we can find many big Hotels, Resorts, Restaurants, Casinos, Lodges, etc.

Naturally and culturally the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding areas have unique and attractive tourist products. Within a 20km radius there are seven World Heritage Sites, one can see panoramic view of mountain range during the Kathmandu Valley Cultural Trekking, and can also observe the best Nepal’s rural culture life with minimum equipment. But at the same time it is an obvious fact that Kathmandu has expanded over the last decade with new buildings of all shape. As a result of it, the valley has to witness a difficult situation of fast-growing unplanned urbanization and uncontrolled land development creating lots of problem regarding proper solid and sewage waste management.

Aiming at avoiding its environmental and cultural problems efforts are being made through government and non-government levels. There are some NGOs in Nepal that support tourism and environment related activities working with local communities, government organization and private sectors. “Nepal Environment and Tourism Initiative Foundation (NETIF)” is one of them. This organization has already undertaken few programs regarding tourism and environment in “Kathmandu Valley Cultural Trekking Trail (KVCTT)” for the sustainable tourism development.

Presently NETIF is working with local communities and encouraging environmental sustainable practices for the promotion of Kathmandu Valley Cultural Trekking Trail. Some of the noteworthy works includes clean-up campaigns, construction of tourist shelters, installations of incinerators, bins and toilets as well as local capacity building programs including waste management and environment conservation.

2. Introduction of Kathmandu Valley Cultural Trekking Trail (KVCTT):
Tourism is one of the major industries of the Nepalese economy. It represents a significant position of the gross domestic product. It is highly consumer centered activity. The constant increase of the number of visitors/ tourists has put extra pressure on the local environment and requires the development of additional infrastructure and facilities. Apart from environmental degradation from infrastructure development in the tourist areas, there has been a big challenge of waste management and environment pollution not only from local people but also from hotels, resorts, restaurants etc.

The need has been realized by the organization (NETIF), which is working to promote community based eco-tourism in the area and has developed “Kathmandu Valley Cultural Trekking Trail (KVCTT)” as one of the major tourism products of the country. In the context of KVCTT, the problem of waste management is one of the big challenges of managing the waste properly to promote responsible tourism in the area. To address those challenges various awareness campaigns like- capacity building trainings for hotels, resorts, lodges and tea-houses, placing environment slogans in the trekking trail are being carried out, incinerators are constructed in the major settlements, waste collection bins are placed throughout the trail. Some of the major activates performed by NETIF to promote eco-friendly tourism and to address waste management related issues in KVCTT are:
• Mushroom and Off seasonal vegetable Cultivation trainings
• Doll making from Corn husk( Waste to Resources)
• Food and Personal Hygiene and Sanitation training in Hotel
• Cleanup campaign in various destinations.
• Workshop organized on Organic farming, Waste Management and Heritage Conservation
• Different research surveys on Solid Waste Management

Kathmandu Valley Cultural Trekking Trail (KVCTT) passes through a National Park and three other Hill Stations. Since Nagarkot is a typical popular tourist destination as well as part of Kathmandu Valley Cultural Trekking Trail (KVCTT), this paper is also based on the study of solid waste management situation in Nagarkot.

3. Case Study of Nagarkot:
Nagarkot is situated at an elevation of 2,175 meter above sea level. It is located 32km to east of Kathmandu city. It has been a weekend spot for mountain viewers in quite and comfort. The sunrise viewed from this hill presents the majestic panoramic view of the Himalayan ranges from Mt. Dhaulagiri in the west to the Mt. Everest in the east. Presently there are around 40 tourist standard hotels, resorts, restaurants and tea-houses and numbers are still increasing.

3. 1. Total Waste Generated in Nagarkot

The different categories of solid waste generated from hotels, resorts, restaurants, lodges and shops are classified as biodegradable wastes (food waste, vegetable waste etc.) and non-biodegradable waste (paper, plastic, glass, metals, dust etc). In Nagarkot tourist area, the average total waste generated from different sources is 1453.83 kg/day.

3.2. Waste Collection System in Hotels, Resorts and Restaurants:
The collection of wastes in the hotels and resorts is done by using plastic buckets, metal bins or paper boxes due to the fact that there is no specific type of collection system and most of them have to manage their waste by themselves. Some of the hotels and resorts have solid waste collection system .The wastes are being transported to nearby dumping site. From the survey done for the case study, it was found that almost all hotels are willing to have a specific collection system and two pay charge for the service.

3. 3. Reuse /Recycle
Though reuse and recycle of the waste can help to reduce the amount of the waste it was found that very few hoteliers are aware of it. Some of the hotels, resorts and restaurants are reusing mineral water bottles. Almost all the hotels are selling the empty bottles to the scrap dealers.

3. 4. Problems and Challenges of Waste Management
  • The waste is managed in traditional way in hotels, resorts & restaurants,
  • There is no such awareness in the public and no strict rules against the waste pollution,
  • Management of solid waste is extremely poor and hazardous to health,
  • Adoption of general available technology,
  • Commitment of waste management by stakeholders.
3. 5. Necessary Steps to Implement for Recycling Programme in Hotel Waste Management
  • Identify and quantify recyclable materials currently being thrown away in open land,
  • Involving the hotel’s participation in all stages of the recycling program,
  • Promote and identify “Green Hotels/Resorts” (which means the hotel who uses resources wisely incorporating energy, water, recycling & water),
  • Select products made from recycled materials,
  • Purchases energy efficient equipment that causes less environment harm,
  • Appointment of a Waste Manager who will be responsible for implementation of procedures & standards of waste management.
4. Conclusion and Recommendations:
Naturally, solid Waste Management is one of the major issues for tourism promotion and also play a major role to save or destroy the beauty of the place. But so far it shows that there has not been adequately considered in practice over this aspects of solid waste management.
Taking into account, the present situation of Nagarkot, it is obvious that solid waste problem has created many serious huddles in tourism development. Thus there is still a need more efforts to address such problem as soon as possible by promoting eco-tourism in “Kathmandu Valley Cultural Trekking Trail” with the involvement of local communities. Taking into conservation all these facts following recommendations are suggested:
  • Awareness programs, trainings and workshops should be conducted for waste handling for local community, tourist, staffs of the hotels, resorts, restaurants, tea-houses, local shops etc,
  • Habit of waste reduction at source itself should be practiced to reduce solid waste problem. Even the various types of wastes should be segregated at the point of source so that treatment of solid waste would be easier and efficient,
  • New technology need to be introduced to recycle and reuse the plastics waste and other mineral water bottles ,
  • Incinerators have been placed by NETIF for demonstration purposes which are working well there. More incinerator are required to be placed in various location for burning non-biodegradable waste,
  • Since hotels, resorts and restaurants generate relatively high amount of organic wastes, it is recommended for them to adopt compost making technology by them individual basis as well.
  • Bhatta Damodar Prasad (June 2006). “Ecotourism in Nepal”, Quality Printers Pvt.Ltd, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • GTZ (1988). “Solid Waste Management with People’s participation, An example in Nepal”. Kathmandu: SWMRMC
  • ICIMOD and MoEST (2007). “Kathmandu Valley Environment Outlook”
  • Manandhar Isha (August 2009). “Study on Solid Waste Management in Tourist Area of Nagarkot”, Kathmandu University
  • The Ecotourism Society (1999). “Ecotourism: A Guide for Planners & Manager”, Natraj Publication, Dehra Dun
  • Website of Nepal Environment & Tourism Initiative Foundation(NETIF)-


  1. There should be more initiatives like this one. Our planet deserves this.
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  2. Great post! I hope you will share more with us. Thank you!
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  3. This comment has been removed by the author.

  4. महोदय,

    यो Eco- पर्यटन हामीलाई जलवायु परिवर्तन गरेर बारेमा ल्याए पनि थिचेर * यो जलवायु परिवर्तनको विश्वव्यापी चुनौतीहरूको सामना गर्न एक सान्दर्भिक स्थानीय कार्य योजना प्रदान गर्दछ।
    * यो जैविक खेती र जैविक जीवित को विचार को प्रसार प्रचार गर्न युवा र वयस्क दर्शकहरुको दुवै लागि राम्रो संगठित शिक्षा प्रदान गर्दछ।
    * यो नयाँ जब सिर्जना र सामाजिक एकीकरण बढाउँछ।
    * सबै माथि अंक बाहेक, यस परियोजना एक मोडेल परियोजना र युरोपेली मात्रा मा एक अद्वितीय इको-पर्यटक लक्ष्य हो।

    प्रशिक्षण र अनुसन्धान केन्द्र
    पर्यावरण सजग जीवन शैली

    हामी, रूपमा व्यापक सकेसम्म एक दर्शक लक्षित प्रभावकारी मानिसहरूलाई इको-बेसी गरेको गतिविधिहरु प्रस्तुत गर्न चाहन्छु। यो पर्यावरण सजग जीवन शैली - प्रशिक्षण र अनुसन्धान केन्द्र यसको उपस्थिति र यसको मर्मत दुवै पर्यावरण चेतना प्रतिनिधित्व जो लगभग 1000 वर्ग मीटर को एक क्षेत्र, एउटा भवन छ। , साथै सैद्धान्तिक व्यावहारिक प्रशिक्षण प्रदान गर्दछ जो आफ्नो प्राकृतिक वातावरण, यसको Botanic बगैचा र विभिन्न सुविधा सबै संग यो प्रशिक्षण केन्द्र, देखाउन र एक स्थायी जीवन शैली प्रोपेगेट गर्ने लक्ष्य।

    हाम्रो मुख्य विकासक्रम:

    * एक पारिस्थितिक र जीवन शैली प्रशिक्षण (एक 11 हेक्टर Botanic बगैचा को दिल मा) वर्षेनी 50 000 आगंतुकों आकर्षित केन्द्र,
    * अक्षय शक्ती प्रयोग को लागि एक केन्द्र (आत्म-पर्याप्त भवन)
    * एक स्थानीय फोहोर-व्यवस्थापन मोडेल परियोजना
    * अनुसन्धान सम्भावनाहरू, सम्मेलन र प्रशिक्षण सेमिनार
    * थिम्ड प्रस्तुति वरिपरि हिँड्छ
    वैश्विक जलवायु परिवर्तन, प्रयोगात्मक समाधान को प्रभाव लागि * स्थानीय जवाफ

    यो पर्यावरण-घरेलू दिगो रहन को व्यावहारिक पक्षमा मान्छे प्रशिक्षण लागि एक स्थल छ। वातावरण सजग मान conveying बाहेक यो पनि मान्छे सिकाउनु मा लक्ष्य लिएको छ: कसरी प्रत्येक एक आफ्नो वरपर को अवस्था सुधार सट्टा नष्ट लागि केही गर्न सक्छन्। त्यहाँ पहिले नै वातावरणीय समस्या tackling लागि धेरै सैद्धान्तिक प्रणाली रूपमा यो अत्यंत महत्व छ, तर लामो यी हाम्रो जीवनमा वर्तमान छैनन् रूपमा तिनीहरूले थप केही तर यूटोपियन विचार रहनेछ।

    यस क्षेत्र मा हाम्रो विकासक्रम:

    * खुला यार्ड, जहाँ सबैको एक प्राकृतिक जीवनको गतिविधिमा भाग लिन सक्छन् (फरक लक्ष्य-समूहहरूको लागि विभिन्न कार्यक्रम)
    * व्यावहारिक प्रशिक्षण सत्र, एक प्रतिमान-परिवर्तन को पहिलो कदम
    * जैविक खेती र आत्म-स्थिरता
    * अभ्यास र परम्परागत शिल्प सिकाउने
    * सहायक सुविधाहरु

    कृपया हामी हाम्रो अनुरोध विधिवत धेरै ध्यान संग छलफल हुनेछ आशा। तपाइँको विश्वासीपूर्वक,
    Mr.Ramesh Chandara गिरी

  5. Dear Sir / Madam
    Namaste from unity eco village Social organisations from Nepal Unity eco village
    World wide Fundraising For Eco Project. unity -Eco- village Social-Organization for the development of social projects in the villages of Nepal . The organization supports local agricultural development .
    Funds are also allocated to providing desperately-needed educational and medical supplies.
    unity Eco – village Nepal Connects international volunteers Who want to experience Nepal and Help The Local people to develop their communities .
    Please the Nepalese farmer foundation of organic Agriculture a non profit making organization is pleading to your outfit for compost , Eco farming , tree planting, Eco earth ship houses, volunteers to kindly consider to to focus on the Nepalese farmer and make a field trip our compost training site in Nepal (Pokhara ) unity eco village assist in training the farmers on how to produce COMPOST in other to shift from direct usage of farmyard manure practice which had been inherited by our great grand farmers during the 18th century till this 21st century(2016).
    We are looking for a volunteer organisations and individuals and groups and Government and other organisations who can help us improve the funding for the our project and helping hand for unity eco village to developing a poor and remote village people in Nepal
    We are building a new Road and Eco organic village lifestyle culture in poor village in Nepal after earthquake disaster we are going to fixing the the houses for village people who are suffering from earthquake Disaster in Nepal.
    Since 5 year are building a Road in poor village in Nepal and helping to plant fruit tree and eco organic vegetables and food and milk products
    Improve the service to helping Nepalese farmer people who are looking for a volunteer organisations
    Please we hope our request would be duly considered with much attention. Yours faithfully,
    Mr.Ramesh Chandara Giri

  6. महोदय,
    माइक्रो परियोजना लागू वित्तीय समर्थन लागि आवेदन
    इको गाउँ Chapakot, कास्की मा कृषि विकास रूख रोपण र पर्यटन विकास को कार्यक्रम गाउँमा स्थानीय कृषि विकास र रूख रोपण , धार्मिक र सांस्कृतिक सम्पदाको, मनोरञ्जन, शिक्षा र पर्यटन को विकास कार्यक्रम विस्तृत कोष सङ्कलन पर्यावरण परियोजना का लागि इको गाउँ Chapakot, 6 कास्की मा एकता इको - गाउँ आफ्नो समुदाय विकास गर्न स्थानीय मानिसहरूलाई मदत गर्दछ।
    नेपालको गाउँमा सामाजिक परियोजनाहरूको विकास का लागि सामाजिक-संगठन एकता इकोगाउँ सामाजिक संगठन हो.
    इको गाउँमा स्थानीय कृषि विकास र रूख रोपण पानी शुद्धीकरण र प्रवाह, माटो, आध्यात्मिक, धार्मिक र सांस्कृतिक सम्पदाको, मनोरञ्जन, शिक्षा र पर्यटन को विकास कार्यक्रम को सुधार गर्न आफ्नो समुदाय विकास हाम्रो परियोजनाहरु इको गाउँ Chapakot, कास्की मा हो
    स्वयंसेवक संगठन र व्यक्तिहरू र समूह र सरकार र अन्य संगठनहरू हामीलाई एकता पर्यावरण गाउँमा हाम्रो परियोजना इको को लागि कोष र सहयोगको अनुरोध गर्दछ हाम्रो परियोजनाहरु,माइक्रो परियोजना लागू वित्तीय समर्थन लागि आवेदन कृषि विकास रूख रोपण र पर्यटन हो
    हाम्रो परियोजनाहरु, काम कोष सङ्कलन पर्यावरण परियोजना लागि सबै आकार को चन्दा सरकार र अन्य संगठनहरू संग अनुरोध गर्दछ
    यो इको-गाउँमा एक मोडेल प्रयोग, सबै उमेर समूह प्रतिनिधित्व गर्दै जहाँ अवलोकन गर्न सकिन्छ, सबैभन्दा बदलिने क्षमता सँगै दैनिक आफ्नो समुदाय लागि, आफ्नो कार्यमा, काम आफ्नो स्वतन्त्र समय खर्च, र आफ्नो मनोरञ्जनमा मानिसहरूलाई। एक आर्थिक र सामाजिक दृष्टिकोणबाट वर्तमान एक सय र पचास सदस्य समुदाय लामो अवधि स्थिरता हासिल गर्ने लक्ष्य लिएको छ एकता इको-गाउँ गैर-Goverment, गैर लाभदायक नेपाली संगठन हो यो इको-पर्यटन एक मोडेल प्रयोग, सबै उमेर समूह प्रतिनिधित्व गर्दै जहाँ अवलोकन गर्न सकिन्छ, सबैभन्दा बदलिने क्षमता सँगै दैनिक आफ्नो समुदाय लागि, आफ्नो कार्यमा, काम आफ्नो स्वतन्त्र समय खर्च, र आफ्नो मनोरञ्जनमा मानिसहरूलाई। एक आर्थिक र सामाजिक दृष्टिकोणबाट वर्तमान एक सय र पचास सदस्य समुदाय लामो अवधि स्थिरता हासिल गर्ने लक्ष्य लिएको छ।
    Mr.Ramesh Chandara Giri

  7. आवेदक को 2) कानूनी फारम, स्थापना को वर्ष, सदस्यहरू संख्या

    1) पहिलो नाम: रमेश
    अन्तिम नाम: गिरी
    ठेगाना: Chapakot 6Pokhara

    2) प्रथम नाम: Bisnu
    अन्तिम नाम: Gautum
    ठेगाना: Kaskikot 9Pokhara

    3) पहिलो नाम: Babu राम
    अन्तिम नाम: गौतम
    ठेगाना: Kaskikot 9Pokhara

    4) पहिलो नाम: सागर
    अन्तिम नाम: गिरी
    ठेगाना: लेकसाइड 6 पोखरा

    5) पहिलो नाम: कृष्ण
    अन्तिम नाम: बस्नेत
    ठेगाना: Kaskikot 9Pokhara

    6) पहिलो नाम: Ravilal
    अन्तिम नाम: गौतम
    ठेगाना: Kaskikot 9 पोखरा

    7) पहिलो नाम: Navraj
    अन्तिम नाम: बस्नेत
    ठेगाना: Kaskikot 9Pokhara

    जिम्मेवार सम्पर्क व्यक्ति (नाम, ठेगाना)
    1) पहिलो नाम: रमेश
    अन्तिम नाम: गिरी
    ठेगाना: Chapakot 6Pokhara


    2) प्रथम नाम: सागर
    अन्तिम नाम: गिरी
    ठेगाना: लेकसाइड 6 पोखरा

    कृपया हामी हाम्रो अनुरोध विधिवत धेरै ध्यान संग छलफल हुनेछ आशा। तपाइँको विश्वासीपूर्वक,
    Mr.Ramesh Chandara गिरी